Local organizations such as the Albany Inter-Racial Council and churches, helped them, but de facto segregation and discrimination remained well into the late 20th century.[45]. One contributory factor in black out-migration from the county from 1860 to 1870 is the fact that slaves in Cabell County, as well as throughout West Virginia, were not freed by the Emancipation Proclamation but by an act of the state legislature in February 1865. With the beginning of World War I, a number of jobs opened in Northern industries. The race riots peaked in Chicago, for the most violence and death occurred there during the riots. The East St Louis Illinois Riot, known for one of the bloodiest workplace riots, had between 40-200 killed and over 6000 African Americans displaced from their home. [34], In Mississippi, blacks decreased from about 56% of the population in 1910 to about 37% by 1970,[35] remaining the majority only in some Delta counties. In Georgia, blacks decreased from about 45% of the population in 1910 to about 26% by 1970. For example, many people from Mississippi moved directly north by train to Chicago, from Alabama to Cleveland and Detroit, from Georgia and South Carolina to New York City, Baltimore, Washington D.C. and Philadelphia, and in the second migration, from Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to Oakland, Los Angeles, Portland, Phoenix, Denver, and Seattle. Ohio, Passenger and Crew Lists arriving at Ashtabula and Conneaut, 1952-1974, index and images Historians have long described this exodus as the Great Migration, great not just because of the numbers of people who moved but also because of the social and political consequences. The U.S. Senate ordered an investigation into it. CLEVELAND, Ohio -- Establishing a new and powerful migration pattern, black families fled their Cleveland neighborhoods in large numbers last decade. With fewer resources, the newer groups were forced to compete for the oldest, most run-down housing. But most of today’s black-majority cities—more than 800 of the 1,148 in 2010—already existed in some form in 1970. The Great Migration drained off much of the rural black population of the South, and for a time, froze or reduced African-American population growth in parts of the region. Their numbers increased dramatically to five percent of the population by 1930. When the Great Migration started in the 1910s, white southern elites seemed to be unconcerned, and industrialists and cotton planters saw it as a positive, as it was siphoning off surplus industrial and agricultural labor. "The disappearance of the 'black belt' was one of the striking effects" of the Great Migration, James Gregory wrote. [55], During the wave of migration that took place in the 1940s, white southerners were less concerned, as mechanization of agriculture in the late 1930s had resulted in another labor surplus so southern planters put up less resistance.[53]. Although blacks were treated with extreme hostility and subjected to legal discrimination, the southern economy was deeply dependent on them as an abundant supply of cheap labor, and black workers were seen as the most critical factor in the economic development of the South. Conflicts continue post World War 1, as African Americans continue to face conflicts and tension while the African American labor activism continues. The black population in Pittsburgh jumped from 6,000 in 1880 to 27,000 in 1910. [35], The growing black presence outside the South changed the dynamics and demographics of numerous cities in the Northeast, Midwest, and West. Migrants going to Pittsburgh and surrounding mill towns in western Pennsylvania between 1890 and 1930 faced racial discrimination and limited economic opportunities. [36] After the Great Depression, more advances took place after workers in the steel and meatpacking industries organized into labor unions in the 1930s and 1940s, under the interracial Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). In 1920, African Americans made up only three percent of Ohio's population. One charts the movement of blacks from their states of origin to key destination cities in the North, the other follows the more recent movement in reverse to the South. The Great Migration is a backdrop of the 2013 film The Butler, as the Forest Whitaker character Cecil Gaines moves from a plantation in Georgia to become a butler at the White House. Ohio’s three largest cities – Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Columbus— saw the greatest migrations. The Great Migration, along with immigrants from southern and eastern Europe as well as their descendants, rapidly turned the city into the country's fourth-largest. [23] The authors of The Negro in Chicago; a study of race relations and a race riot, an official report from 1922 on race relations in Chicago, came to the conclusion that there were many factors that led to the violent outbursts in Chicago. [8] By 1960, half of the African Americans in the South lived in urban areas,[8] and by 1970, more than 80% of African Americans nationwide lived in cities. By the late 1970s, as deindustrialization and the Rust Belt crisis took hold, the Great Migration came to an end. The more established populations of cities tended to move to newer housing as it was developing in the outskirts. It wasn't peaches and cream [in Chicago], man, but it was a hell of a lot better than down there where I was born. Between 1910 and 1930, African-American migration to Ohio swelled the state’s cities. 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